The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360–400 million native speakers;[nb 2] German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers. Old English, Although it is possible to group the various noun declensions into three basic categories — vowel-stem, n-stem, and other-consonant-stem (a.k.a. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. In English, both two sets of adjective endings were lost entirely in the late Middle English period. For a full classification, see List of Germanic languages. The raising of final /ō/ to /u/ (Gothic lowers it to /a/). German literature started to take off during the 12th and 13th centuries Pennsylvania German, English is an official language of Belize, Canada, Nigeria, Falkland Islands, Malta, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa, Philippines, Jamaica, Dominica, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, American Samoa, Palau, St. Lucia, Grenada, Barbados, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Hong Kong, Singapore, Pakistan, India, Papua New Guinea, Namibia, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and former British colonies in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Some of the West Germanic languages also did not survive past the Migration Period, including Lombardic. Change of /lþ/ to stop /ld/ (except word-finally). http://www.deutschakademie.de/online-deutschkurs/english/ Sütterlin, German as the language of official documents. There were three moods: indicative, subjunctive (developed from the PIE optative mood) and imperative. http://leicht-deutsch-lernen.com Mòcheno, German belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family, along with English, Frisian, and Dutch (Netherlandic, Flemish). It uses the lowest estimate for English (360 million). Archaic Latin alphabet, Shetland(ic), It is only in Middle Dutch and modern German that the various vowel-stem nouns have merged to the point that a binary strong/weak distinction clearly applies. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',141,'0','0'])); A variety of German spoken by about 4 million people in Switzerland, German belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family, along with English, Frisian, and Dutch (Netherlandic, Flemish). In. Yiddish, once a native language of some 11 to 13 million people, remains in use by some 1.5 million speakers in Jewish communities around the world, mainly in North America, Europe, Israel, and other regions with Jewish populations.. All living Germanic languages belong either to the West Germanic or to the North Germanic branch. Frisian (West), Dutch-speakers can understand Afrikaans with some difficulty, but Afrikaans-speakers have a harder time understanding Dutch because of the simplified grammar of Afrikaans, compared to that of Dutch. German, Germanic languages by share (West Germanic in yellow-red shades and North Germanic in blue shades):[nb 4]. /n/ lost finally and before /s,p,t,k/, but not before other consonants. Limburgish, Loss of final /z/. Flemish,  The Netherlands also colonized Indonesia, but Dutch was scrapped as an official language after Indonesian independence. The old Germanic languages are famous for having only two tenses (present and past), with three PIE past-tense aspects (imperfect, aorist, and perfect/stative) merged into one and no new tenses (future, pluperfect, etc.) Some of the best-known are the following: Note that some of the above characteristics were not present in Proto-Germanic but developed later as areal features that spread from language to language: Roughly speaking, Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is with respect to an overall trend toward analyticity. The cognate means 'potato'. High German, the language of the southern highlands of Germany, is the official written language. AD and consist of fragments of an epic poem, the Song of Hildebrand, There are about 80 million people who speak German as a second language, and many others study it as a foreign language. The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic, and Educational Perspectives by Guus Extra, Durk Gorter; Multilingual Matters, 2001 – 454; page 10. Well-known examples include Swedish is also spoken by some people in Estonia. There are also significant German-speaking communities in the USA, Download a font for Sütterlin (TrueType, 56K). There are about 80 million people who speak German as a Note: all links on this site to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.fr are affiliate links. That is, if two languages in a family share a characteristic that is not observed in a third language, that is evidence of common ancestry of the two languages only if the characteristic is an innovation compared to the family's proto-language. Swedish is also one of the two official languages in Finland, along with Finnish, and the only official language in the Åland Islands. Zeelandic, Languages written with the Latin alphabet. There are also at least three examples of a common borrowing from a non-Germanic source (ounce and devil and their cognates from Latin, church and its cognates from Greek). Aitken, A. J. and McArthur, T. Eds. During this period Latin was gradually replaced by The most common class (the o/ā class) used a combination of o-stem endings for masculine and neuter genders and ā-stems ending for feminine genders, but other common classes (e.g. This article is about a major branch of the Indo-European language family. Danish is an official language of Denmark and in its overseas territory of the Faroe Islands, and it is a lingua franca and language of education in its other overseas territory of Greenland, where it was one of the official languages until 2009.
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