Etruria A series of more or less important discoveries culminating in the invention of gunpowder and printing had considerably aided the development of the crafts. During the first days of World War I, many Germans experienced a sense of bonding that had eluded them since the founding of the empire. 287 Heights and Living Standards in Germany, 1850-1939 Table 8.1 Commercial Sector Employment as a Percentage of the Population (Gewerbesah) in Several German Regions, 1875-1939 ~ StateorProvince 1875 1882 1895 1907 1925 1933 1939 Saxony 22.91 26.33 30.38 34.25 42.95 28.91 Wurttemberg 15.31 14.72 18.86 22.08 31 26.86 Rhineprovince 19 20.57 22.97 26.25 32.85 23.28 Baden 15.82 15.51 20.94 … By the Punctation of Olmütz of November 29, 1850, the Prussians agreed to the restoration of the German Confederation, and the old order was fully reestablished in all its weakness and inadequacy. United Kingdom (from 1815), Kingdom of Prussia Forces of Queen Mary II of Portugal, Forces of Infante Carlos of Spain When Schwarzenberg suggested the reestablishment of the old federal Diet, he won the support of many rulers who had agreed to follow Berlin against their will. Before the peasant war, the plebeian opposition appeared in the political struggles, not as a party, but as a shouting, rapacious tail-end to the middle-class opposition, a mob that could be bought and sold for a few barrels of wine. Jammu and Kashmir They gave the movement its theorists and ideologists, and many of them, representatives of the plebeians and peasants, died on the scaffold. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, United Kingdom (naval support) * Legitimistas (conservative party) * Democráticos (liberal party) United States (naval support), Guatemala Baden British Empire Not in vain did all the official estates of the empire live on the exploitation of the peasants. Whenever he pleased, he threw the peasant into the tower, where the rack waited for him just as surely as the investigating attorney waits for the criminal in our times. In no modern country was the number of vagabonds so great as in Germany, in the first half of the Sixteenth Century. The annates were collected with particular severity when a bishopric was to become vacant. The peasant saw his crop destroyed by wild game. Clearly, the military, agrarian, and industrial elites who ruled Germany considered themselves involved in two wars simultaneously, one against the Triple Entente and the other against the aspirations of the German people for full political emancipation. One portion of these tramps joined the army in war-time, another begged its way through the country, a third sought to eke out a meagre living as day-labourers in those branches of work which were not under guild jurisdiction. Kingdom of the French Who could defend the peasant? In brief, in so far as it appeared independently, it was reactionary. United Kingdom Out of that which he earned in his few free hours, he had to pay tithes, dues, ground rents, war taxes, land taxes, imperial taxes, and other payments. Media in category "Germany in the 1840s" The following 20 files are in this category, out of 20 total. The patricians took care to make dormant the rights of the city community everywhere, particularly as regards finance. Swiss Confederation Germany - Germany - World War I: During the first days of World War I, many Germans experienced a sense of bonding that had eluded them since the founding of the empire. New classes had been formed besides the old ones. United Kingdom, Circassia Honduras The middle-class opposition, the predecessor of our modern liberals, embraced the richer middle-class, the middle-class of moderate means, and a more or less appreciable section of the poorer elements, according to local conditions. In Austria, for example, the constitution that had been promulgated in 1849 was revoked, and legitimism, centralization, and clericalism became the guiding principles of government. Boatmen of Thessaloniki (from 1900–1903), Sovereign Tagalog Nation The lower nobility, the knighthood, was fast moving towards extinction. Before the negotiations were successful, revolution broke out in the German navy on November 3, 1918, and spread to the military and urban workers. Kingdom of Portugal This new European empire acquired colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, resulting in several colonial wars in the late 1800s and early … Romania Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies El Salvador Kingdom of Bavaria The local industry of the feudal countryside was superseded by the guild organisation of production in the cities, which produced for wider circles and even for remote markets. Foreign volunteers, Philippine Constabulary Riograndense Republic United States Mecklenburg-Schwerin What the emperor was to the princes and nobility, the pope was to the higher and lower clergy. In November 1914 Alfred Hugenberg, a major industrialist and subsequent ally of Adolf Hitler, told German entrepreneurs. Industry lagged far behind the Italian, Flemish and English, and as to sea navigation, the English, and especially the Dutch, were already driving the Germans out of the field. The newly arising class of jurists drove the clergy out of a series of very influential positions. Not only did the value of industrial production and foreign trade in the Zollverein more than double in the course of the decade, but also new investment banks based on the joint-stock principle were founded to provide venture capital for factories and railroads. Outside of the art of weaving, there had arisen those branches of industry, which, approaching the finer arts, were nurtured by the demands for luxuries on the part of the ecclesiastic and lay lords of the late mediaeval epoch: gold- and silver-smithing, sculpture and wood-carving, etching and wood-engraving, armour-making, medal-engraving, wood-turning, etc., etc. While the Austrian armies were still engaged in the campaign against the revolution in Hungary, Prussia began to exert diplomatic pressure on the smaller German states to join in the formation of a new federal league known as the Prussian Union. Philippine Scouts, Katipunan Justice was denied or sold for money, and wherever the knight could not obtain the peasant’s money otherwise, he threw him into the tower without much ado, and compelled him to pay ransom. London: Luzac &, 1983. Kingdom of Italy Agriculture lagged far behind that of England and Holland. The number of people without a definite occupation and a stable domicile was at that time gradually being augmented by the decay of feudalism in a society in which every occupation, every realm of life, was entrenched behind a number of privileges. It is easily understood why these elements collapse more quickly than any other, why their movement bears an outspoken, fantastic stamp, and why the expression of their demands must necessarily be extremely indefinite. Etruria Many of the political concessions made earlier, under the pressure of popular turmoil, were now restricted or abrogated. Out of the old nobility came the princes. The development of military science, the rising importance of infantry, the spread of firearms, had dwarfed their military importance as heavy cavalry, at the same time destroying the invincibility of their castles. Its members' objective was a constellation of states and a balance of power that would ensure peace and stability after a quarter-century of revolution and war. The invention of the art of printing, and the requirements of extended commerce, robbed the clergy not only of its monopoly of reading and writing, but also of that of higher education. Overwhelmingly, the parties, including the Social Democrats, voted for war credits. The production of raw materials had equally progressed. United States, Republic of Cuba None of the instructive chapters of the Carolina which speaks of “cutting of ears,” “cutting of noses,” “blinding,” “chopping of fingers,” “beheading,” “breaking on the wheel,” “burning,” “pinching with burning tongs,” “quartering,” etc., was left unpractised by the gracious lord and master at his pleasure. Kingdom of Württemberg This took place under the direct influence of Muenzer in Thuringia, and of his disciples in other places. The middle-class opposition demanded measures against the scandalous behaviour of those illustrious people. France United Kingdom The German Confederation, 1815-66 The Congress of Vienna (1814-15), convened after Napoleon's defeat, sought to restore order to a Europe disrupted by revolutionary and imperial France. Sardinia Kingdom of Hanover It is for these reasons that, although local insurrections of peasants can be found in mediaeval times in large numbers, not one general national peasant revolt, least of all in Germany, can be observed before the peasant war. Grand Duchy of Baden The clergy was divided into two distinct groups. The secondary states returned to the policies of legitimism and particularism that they had pursued before the revolution. Sweden, Volunteers from Habsburg Empire Pawnee Tribes, Serbia By the Punctation of Olmütz of November 29, 1850, the Prussians agreed to the restoration of the German Confederation, and the old order was fully reestablished in all its weakness and inadequacy. On the diplomatic front the elites ruling Germany planned for vast annexations of Russian, Belgian, and French territory as well as for an African empire. Spain The city opposition against the patricians was divided into two factions which stood out very clearly in the course of the peasant war. For three and a half years neither side moved more than 30 miles despite titanic battles at Verdun, the Somme, and Ypres. Bulgarian volunteers, British Empire County of Schaumburg-Lippe Black Brunswickers Those who had dared to defy royal authority were forced to pay the penalty of harassment, exile, imprisonment, or even death. Serf labour, dues, ground rents, land sale taxes, death taxes, protection moneys and so on, were increased at will in spite of old agreements. Kingdom of France We shall see how, in the course of the Sixteenth Century, this moderate, “law-abiding,” well-off and intelligent opposition played exactly the same role and exactly with the same success as its heir, the constitutional party in the movements of 1848 and 1849. The war costs were to be paid by the defeated powers of the Triple Entente. Social Democrats and Progressives rallied to support the resolution. The national energies, frustrated in the effort to achieve civic reform, turned to the attainment of material progress. On August 8 the German army suffered a severe defeat in northern France, and not long thereafter William II installed a new, more liberal government in Berlin, headed by Maximilian, Prinz von Baden. In Frankfurt am Main, where the federal Diet now resumed its sessions, diplomats continued to guard the prerogatives of princely authority and state sovereignty. For many investors the price of overoptimism and speculation was misfortune and bankruptcy. Sicily, Duchy of Warsaw This conflict brought several independent German states and kingdoms together to form the German Empire. Hiroshima Domain The slow-moving Russians would occupy Prussia’s eastern rural provinces, facing only a modest-sized German military force. Its program included a commitment to fight for an unequivocal German victory, including annexations, and maintenance of the Prusso-German political system. Elsaß-Lothringen came under German rule. These high church dignitaries were either imperial princes themselves, or they reigned as vassals of other princes over large areas with numerous serfs and bondsmen. Germans to America, 1850-1897 This immigration database includes more than 4 million Germans who arrived in the United States between 1850 and 1897 through the ports of Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans, New York, and Philadelphia.